Logging is the process of recording events, messages, or actions occurring within software applications, systems, or devices for monitoring, debugging, and troubleshooting purposes. Logging involves capturing relevant information such as timestamps, log levels, severity levels, error messages, and contextual data to track the execution flow, diagnose issues, and analyze system behavior. Logging frameworks and libraries provide APIs and configuration options for customizing log outputs, formats, destinations, and retention policies to meet specific logging requirements.